Desert Arthropods: Life History Variations by Robert Raven

By Robert Raven

This publication is a easy account of the existence cycles and lifestyles heritage suggestions of the key teams of wilderness arthropods. It covers a large choice of themes together with an summary of significant variations in desolate tract arthropods, attribute beneficial properties of deserts, a finished overview of existence historical past conception, and a close description of embryonic and postembryonic improvement. The booklet additionally presents an in-depth dialogue of the lifestyles background qualities in those animals together with improvement time, development charges and styles, age and measurement at adulthood, measurement and variety of offspring, intercourse ratios, charges linked to copy and durability, and explains how those features are inextricably hooked up via quite a few trade-offs together with these among present copy and survival, present and destiny copy, and among quantity, dimension and intercourse of offspring. eventually, the connection among behavioral ecology and existence heritage characteristics is mentioned.

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Leg scopulae are present in Cyrtaucheniidae, most Idiopidae, and most Crassitarsae. Because neither the Mesothelae nor the Atypidae plus Antrodiaetidae have leg scopulae in females, the presence of scopulae is presumed apomorphic. Thus, the loss of scopulae would need to be proposed to include, in the same group, spiders that are scopulate and those that are not. Because that is unparsimonious Neocteniza seems more parsimoniously excluded from the Idiopidae and Cyrtaucheniidae. The second character is the reduced dentition of the paired claws of females (character 21).

All other groups are recognizable by their unique character combinations. The Harpactirinae have a wide clypeus and, like the Ornithoctoninae, have a distinct scopula on the outer chelicerae (character 8; Pocock, 1 897b); the Theraphosinae have a modified palpal bulb bearing ridges or keels (character 15), and the basal sclerite extends down the bulb (character 15) to a greater extent than usual for theraphosids (see Schiapelli and Gerschman, 1979); the Aviculariinae have broader tarsi than metatarsi (character 17), their legs are generally aspinose, and males have a spinose mound between the lobes of the palpal tarsi (character 18).

Cladogram of barychelid relationships. Numbers refer to characters in table 4 that are discussed in text. Solid rectangles indicate synapomorphies without homoplasies within the family; only upper triangle solid indicates a parallelism; only lower triangle solid indicates a reversal. barychelids and most theraphosids would need to be considered parallelisms. The second alternative requires only four steps (one gain of weak scopulae in the Crassitarsae, followed by two parallelisms of thick scopulae and one reduction in the Paratropidinae), and reduces the number of reversals and, as seen above (Theraphosid Intrarelationships), gains support from other character distributions.

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