By Imai T., Yoshie O.
CX3CR1 is a particular receptor for fractalkine/neurotactin (CX3CL1), a transmembrane molecule having an N-terminal chemokine area with the CX3C motif. Membrane-bound fractalkine induces a speedy integrin-independent enterprise adhesion of leukocytes expressing CX3CR1 with no regarding the other adhesion molecules or G protein signaling; whereas soluble fractalkine induces energetic chemotaxis of leukocytes expressing CX3CR1 notwithstanding a pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling pathway. therefore, CX3CR1 has a twin functionality as an adhesion molecule and a sign transducer for leukocyte migration. ample expression of CX3CR1 in microglia and that of fractalkine in neurons additionally indicates vital roles within the mind.
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The induced current in the OHGW that parallels the injection current line increases from 452 A for 10 W-m earth to 589 A for 1000 W-m earth. The induced current in the 180° OHGW does not change signiÞcantly for the three resistivities and three tower-footing resistances. However, its magnitude is a signiÞcant part of the measured current in the OHGW. 2% of the induced current of the parallel case. If, for the 1000 W-m earth, special means are used to reduce tower footings to 10 W, the induced current in the 180° OHGW would increase to 17A, and its earth-return current would increase to 90 A.
2-1991 IEEE GUIDE FOR MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS and the branch impedances: V Z k = -----gIk (35) where k = 1,2,3, and 6 The OHGW and CP conductors connect to the grids and towers. Consequently, their individual impedances cannot be determined with these measurements (see Appendix D). 5Z o ( GW ) + R T Z o ( GW ) (38) where RT is the average tower footing resistance. Zo (GW) is the OHGW earth return self impedance of an average span. See , [B16], [B30], [B42], [B45], and Eqs A7 or A8.
In the case of the fault tests at Substation-X, with signiÞcant load unbalance, it will be necessary to measure each grounded-wye neutral current in Substation-X and add them vectorially to the fault currents, If1 or If2, to determine the total current ßow to the grid. 2-1991 Figure 10-5ÑStaged Fault Test of Substation-X The following current relationships are deduced from the current distribution shown in Fig 10-5. 2-1991 IEEE GUIDE FOR MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDANCE AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS Then the grid impedance can be calculated with the measured grounding potential rise, Vg1: V g1 Z gx = -------I gx (51) As indicated in Eq 24, the earth return current through the tower footings, and an induced current, ßow in the OHGW (X-Y).