By Colin W. Ward (auth.), W. Henle, P. H. Hofschneider, H. Koprowski, O. Maaløe, F. Melchers, R. Rott, H. G. Schweiger, P. K. Vogt (eds.)
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Extra info for Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
1981) Structure of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin 31 There are two looped-out regions between strands in the j3-structure: the 125-163 loop between p-strands 1and 2 and the 187-199 a-helix containing loop between j3-strands 3 and 4. 4). The HAl polypeptide returns to the fibrous region near the two disulphide bridges 52-277 and 281-305 and extends 60 A toward the membrane end of the molecule (Wilson etal. 1981). The C-terminus of HAl is 21 A from the N-terminus ofHA2, indicating a substantial rearrangement in this region when the hemagglutinin is activated by cleavage (Lazarowitz and Choppin 1975; Klenk et al.
Neither was equivalent antigenically to A/Hong Kong/1I68. Thus the six differences in amino acid sequence between the two samples of X-31 are antigenically silent, atleast for the panel of monoclonal antibodies used. U nfortunately there are no characterized monoclonal antibodies with known specificity for the antigenic region (region B) that includes residue 158 (see Sect. 4). As shown in Table 16, a total of 51 amino acid sequence changes have been identified at 48 positions in the Hong Kong hemagglutinin during the period 1968-1979.
All three approaches are being adopted and will be reviewed in this section. 1 Studies with Hemagglutinin Fragments The major antigenic regions of influenza hemagglutinin appear to be confmed to the HAl portion of the molecule. HAl has been shown by hemagglutination inhibition, Structure of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin 35 immuno-double diffusion, or radioimmunoassay to react directly with antibodies raised against whole virus (Eckert 1973; Kuo et al. 1978; Russ et al. 1978; Jackson et al. 1978, 1979a) and to induce the production ofantibodies which can neutralize infectivity, inhibit hemagglutination, or produce immune complexes with detergent-disrupted virus or isolated HA (Eckert 1966; Brand and SkeheI1972; K uo et al.