By Bernard Lewis
Publish 12 months note: First released in 1995
With attractiveness and erudition, Lewis explores that climactic yr of 1492 as a conflict of civilizations - a conflict not just of the recent global and the outdated but in addition of Christendom, Islam, and the Jews. within the similar 12 months that Columbus set sail around the Atlantic, he reminds us, the Spanish monarchs captured Granada, the final Muslim stronghold at the peninsula, and in addition expelled the Jews. Lewis makes use of those 3 epochal occasions to discover the character of the growth of Europe, putting the voyages of discovery in a impressive new context. He lines Christian Europe's direction from primitive backwater at the edges of the big cosmopolitan Caliphate, during the heightening competition of Christianity and Islam, to the triumph of the West, interpreting the standards at the back of their altering fortunes.
That contest lengthy remained extra vital in lots of Christians minds than the recent international: as overdue as 1683, Vienna nearly fell to the Ottoman armies. Lewis additionally displays on altering features in eu and Islamic cultures and where of the Jews in either. The Jews who fled Spain stumbled on a receptive atmosphere in Turkey; however the stability of tolerance and openness to innovation progressively shifted west. The voyages of discovery have been themselves part of the Christian-Muslim clash, he writes, an try and outflank the Islamic global.
The eu explorers sailed right into a global they scarcely understood; and but they imposed their very own perceptions of geography at the lands they conquered. Africa, Asia, the center and much East, the previous and New Worlds - as highbrow techniques, all are eu creations, Lewis observes; paradoxically, those similar definitions were permitted through even the main anti-Western activists.
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Extra resources for Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery
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