By David Turton, Julia González
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Tradition has develop into a touchstone of interdisciplinary dialog. For readers attracted to sociology, the social sciences and the arts, this ebook maps significant classical and modern analyses and cultural controversies in terms of social strategies, way of life, and axes of ordering and distinction - akin to race, type and gender.
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Now, at this moment, we are confronted with the negative effects of the immigration policy. Since 1974 economic growth has declined, and the migrants have been the first victims of that process. At present about 20 % of the migrants are unemployed, while the average unemployment rate for indigenous people is 11 %. In some regions (like the city of Malines) the unemployment rate for migrants is 42 %, four times the rate for indigenous people. Social unrest, disturbances by some groups of migrant youngsters, racism, and the relative electoral success of extreme right wing political parties have been the direct outcomes of this socio-economic situation.
They have always been few, numbering only about 350 today (1999), and all belong to one tightly knit kindred group linked to groups all over Europe through kinship ties. Gypsies avoided Norwegian assimilation policies before the first world war by going to Germany, France and Belgium. When fascism and the war approached in Europe, a group of 50 Gypsies, some with Norwegian birth certificates, tried to get back into their country for security. They were, however, refused entry and sent back to Central Europe, where most of them died in the concentration camps.
Apart from the migrant population's lack of legal integration, there is a considerable inequity in the social situation of the foreign population in Germany. 9 %. The stagnation in the labour market (the average rate is currently above 12 %) is strongly affecting migrant workers, since migrants are usually occupied in traditional sectors of the economy (VON LOEFFELHOLZ/THRÄNHARDT, 1996) which are increasingly shrinking. The shortage of apprenticeships in the German dual system, especially, raises serious problems for the integration of second generation youth into the labour market and German society, although there are a lot of programmes funded by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs targeted at these young people.