By Lucien Breems, Johan Huijsing
This textual content describes the layout and thought of continuous-time sigma-delta modulators for analogue-to-digital conversion in radio receivers. The book's major concentration is on dynamic diversity, linearity and tool potency features of sigma-delta modulators, that are extremely important requisites to be used in battery operated receivers.
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Extra info for Continuous-time Sigma-Delta modulation for A/D conversion in radio receivers
Trager, F. Tam, L. Longo, “A 5-V Single-Chip Delta-Sigma Audio A/D Converter with 111 dB Dynamic Range,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, pp. 329-336, March 1997. , E. Pajarre, S. Ingalsuo, T. Husu, V. Eerola, T. Saramaki, “A Stereo Audio Sigma-Delta A/D-Converter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, pp. 1514-1523, Dec. 1994. E. 0 mW Audio Modulator with 98 dB Dynamic Range,” ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. 50-51, Feb. 1999. , B. 8µm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, pp. 783796, June 1997.
This signal dependent imbalance causes an offset and even-order harmonic distortion. 2: Fig. 1% of a full DAC pulse. The input signal is at 10 kHz. The second harmonic tone at 20 kHz is 75 dB down relative to the signal carrier. The noise floor is raised to -120 dB compared to the spectrum of Fig. 3-5 because of demodulation of high frequency quantization noise. Waveform asymmetry can be reduced by short transition intervals and matching of the transition edges. However, this may not be easy to realize, especially at higher sampling frequencies.
As a result, all pulses have a positive and a negative edge, which greatly reduces signal dependence of the mismatch. Now, any mismatch between the positive and negative pulses only affect the offset. If the RTZ interval has a duty-cycle the reference level of the feedback pulse should increase with the inverse factor in order to have the same charge. 3-11b shows the waveform of a typical feedback signal, with a periodic return-to-zero state, in a single-bit continuous-time modulator. In the case of zero rise and fall times, the charge of the feedback pulse is determined by the amplitude of the DAC current and the pulse width where is the pulse duty-cycle, with a value between 0 and 1 Any inaccuracy in the reference charge has a direct impact on the performance of the modulator.