Contexts of Metaphor by Michiel Leezenberg

By Michiel Leezenberg

This research offers an method of metaphor that systematically takes contextual elements under consideration. It analyses how metaphors either depend upon, and alter, the context within which they're uttered, and particularly, how metaphorical interpretation consists of the articulation of asserted, implied and presupposed fabric. It vitamins this semantic research with a practice-based account of metaphor on the conceptual point, which stresses the position of sociocultural elements in suggestion formation.

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2 Aristotle thus assumes an isomorphism between linguistic terms, mental entities, and things. Because of this isomorphism, referentialist and conceptualist views of metaphor would seem to collapse on his treatment; his remarks in different places are equally germane to both views. It would be somewhat 1 in fact, the only place where Aristotle does seem to express a clearly referentialist view is Topica (140a9): 'metaphor somehow makes the signified object known because of similarity; for all who metaphorize do so according to some similarity' (emph.

Aristotle postulates that metaphors employed in the distinguished language of tragedy and other forms of poetry should be 'uncommon' (1458a21ff), not that metaphors in general are in any way out of the ordinary. I will return to this in the discussion of the Rhetoric below. In other words, 'current' as characterized in Chapter 21 does not seem to be opposed to 'metaphorical', let alone to 'figurative'. Next, Aristotle generically defines metaphora as a 'transfer of a name belongingelsewhere' (1457b8).

Aristotle 37 One remark in Chapter 22 of the Poetics has widely been taken as evidence that Aristotle holds a referentialist view: he says that the gift for appropriate (πρεπη) metaphor cannot be learned from others, because 'to metaphorize well is to observe the similar' (1459a8). 1 The central question is precisely which are the elements of the analogon-relation A : B = C : D. Are they the words themselves, the referents of the terms used, or the concepts expressed by the words? Aristotle nowhere explictly says which one of these is involved, nor does he distinguish them by typographical or other means, so the matter is not easy to decide.

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