Cognitive Radio Systems by Wei Wang

By Wei Wang

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To introduce this concept, we first define Pareto-superiority. Definition 3: The strategy profile s is Pareto-superior to the strategy profile s if for any player i: ui (si , s−i ) ≥ ui (si , s−i ), with strict inequality for at least one player. In other words, the 32 Cognitive Radio Systems strategy profile s is Pareto-superior to the strategy profile s , if the utility of a player i can be increased by changing from s to s , without decreasing the utility of other players. Based on the concept of Pareto-superiority, we can identify the most efficient strategy profile.

A further step is to allow coordination between primary and secondary systems. An effective approach is that the PU signals with beacons the spectrum occupancy in its channels. SUs may then monitor the beacon channel and learn about spectrum holes. In addition, such beacons can be designed to be easily detected with strong modulation and channel coding formats. Several options are possible in a beacon system: to use grant beacons to signal spectrum availability; to use denial beacons to warn about the activity of the primary system, so that SUs do not transmit; or to use a dual beacon approach, which is better in the case of multiple primary transmitters Mangold (2006).

The Fusion Rules The cognitive users collaborate by reporting their local observations to the fusion centre, which makes the final decision on whether H1 or H0 is true. Due to bandwidth and other practical constraints, the cognitive users may report only quantized observations. Here, two classes of fusion algorithms, hard information-combining and soft information-combining algorithm, are considered. In the former, each cognitive user i performs a local hypothesis test and reports a binary variable Bi=1 if it believes H1 is true, and Bi=0 otherwise.

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