By Turaev V.
We introduce a relation of cobordism for knots in thickened surfaces and learn cobordism invariants of such knots.
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Effects of Antioxidants on Phagocytes On activation, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, and monocytes produce O2 ·− and H2 O2 . Most, if not all, of the H2 O2 arises by dismutation of O2 ·− , the ﬁrst product of oxygen reduction by the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex (219). Rodent phagocytes readily produce NO· ; human phagocytes can also do so under certain circumstances (220,221). If O2 ·− and NO· are coproduced, ONOO− may form. If phagocyte-derived O2 ·− , H2 O2 , and reactive nitrogen species are involved in producing damage to tissues, antioxidant protection could be achieved not only by scavenging these species, but also by agents that block their formation by the phagocyte.
For example, it has been suggested that several anti-inﬂammatory drugs interfere with phagocyte function. However, few of these claims meet the criteria that the drug at the concentrations achieved in vivo during therapy must inhibit a respiratory burst that is triggered by using physiologically relevant stimuli, such as opsonized bacteria. Artifacts can also arise when assessing effects of agents on phagocyte production of reactive oxygen species, especially using assays based on cytochrome c or nitroblue tetrazolium reduction for O2 ·− , or peroxidase-based assays for H2 O2 .
Peroxide assays: simple total peroxide measurements Iodine liberation Lipid peroxides Remarks Useful for assessing lipid peroxidation stimulated by different pro-oxidants that give different product distributions. Dissolved O2 concentration is measured; useful when spectrophotometric interference occurs or toxic chemicals interfere with enzymic technique. Not very sensitive. Sometimes used in studies of food lipid peroxidation. One of the oldest methods, widely used in the food industry; lipid peroxides oxidize I− to I2 .