Caves: Processes, Development and Management (Natural by David Gillieson

By David Gillieson

This e-book is aimed toward scholars of the ordinary setting, however it also will entice these - cavers, environmental managers and box naturalists - who're serious about the underground international and its population. it really is illustrated all through with pictures, maps and line diagrams, just about all of that are unique to the e-book.

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Sample text

H the precautionary principle applies in karst research or management, then the larger catchment may provide a truer representation of the sources for the karst drainage network. Hydraulics of Groundwater flow In Karst Early work on karst drainage systems emphasized two modes of flow: diffuse flow and concentrated or conduit flow. 5 per cent of the total baseBow storage in the karst drainage system. Conduits were, Cave Hydrology 21 however, very important in draining the diffuse part of the karst system.

The surface analogues of these are the first-order streams in a drainage basin, where integrated flow commences, and the terminal basin of the catchment, where the channel debouches into a lake, an estuary or the sea. Whereas the catchment of a surface stream may be readily defined using aerial photography or satellite imagery, the catchment of a karst drainage system may be very difficult to define unequivocally. Although some of the inputs to the drainage network may be discrete streamsinks whose connections can be proven by dyetracing experiments, many will be diffuse feeders in the subcutaneous zone whose flow paths will vary depending on individual storm intensity and antecedent rainfall.

They discovered that the water flow or specific discharge Jt was proportional to the hydraulic head loss by friction dh along the tube. 3 Relationship between {low path length and angle between joint and flow directions. L" and W" indicate the length and width of the {low zone respectively. From Worthington (1991). 00L - - - r - - - - - . . 6) where r is the radius of the tube, Jl is the kinematic viscosity of the water, and I is the length of the tube. 2 Looking out of the entrance of the horizontal river cave Yo Chib, Chiapas, Mexico.

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