By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Additional resources for Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles
Gravity along a slope. These forces are a function of the use of the vehicle and can vary considerably. At high speed, the aerodynamic resistance is preponderant (more than 75% of the total), while in urban use the inertia resistance is more than 95% of the total. As well, the absolute values of the forces differ significantly from model to model. 2 for a conventional passenger car (Delsey, 1997). 45. The figures indicate that for urban use the weight of the vehicle is a very important determinant of the power requirements (and the fuel consumption) for passenger cars.
Downsizing and start-stop systems are also options for diesel engines, but, because of the different behaviour of diesel engines under partial load, the gains achievable are smaller than those possible in petrol engines. Hybrid vehicles A hybrid vehicle is equipped with at least two power sources. The most common forms of hybrids usually combine a conventional internal combustion engine and an additional power source. These additional power sources can be electric motors, hydraulic motors or mechanical flywheels.
In Europe, lead-free petrol appeared in 1985. Because of the time needed to renew the fleet with new vehicles equipped with engines adapted to lead-free fuels, it was not until 2001 that the overall European fleet could be considered as “lead free”. Currently, and depending on the country, only 2-5% of the vehicle fleet in Europe still uses leaded petrol, with most OECD countries and many non-OECD countries no longer producing any leaded petrol. CAN CARS COME CLEAN? - STRATEGIES FOR LOW-EMISSION VEHICLES – ISBN-92-64-10495-X ©OECD 2004 31 32 – REGULATED AIR POLLUTANTS The reduction of sulphur content in fuels is a more recent development.