By Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari
When you're programming C# 4.0 and wish a bit aid, this tightly targeted and useful booklet tells you precisely what you must understand -- with no lengthy introductions or bloated examples. It's excellent as a succinct fast reference or as a advisor to get you quickly on top of things in the event you already comprehend Java, C++, or an past model of C#.
Written through the authors of the acclaimed C# 4.0 in a Nutshell (O’Reilly), this publication covers the complete C# 4.0 language -- with out skimping at the info -- together with:
<UL> * beneficial properties new to C# 4.0, equivalent to dynamic binding, not obligatory and named parameters, and sort parameter variance
* All of C#'s basics
* complex issues, together with operator overloading, customized conversions, kind constraints, covariance and contravariance, lambda expressions and closures, iterators, nullable varieties, and operator lifting
* LINQ, beginning with sequences, lazy execution, and conventional question operators; completing with an entire connection with question expressions
* damaging code and guidelines, customized attributes, preprocessor directives, and XML documentation
Read or Download C# 4.0 Pocket Reference PDF
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When you're programming C# four. zero and want a bit support, this tightly targeted and useful publication tells you precisely what you want to understand -- with out lengthy introductions or bloated examples. It's perfect as a succinct fast reference or as a consultant to get you quickly in control in the event you already understand Java, C++, or an past model of C#.
Written via the authors of the acclaimed C# four. zero in a Nutshell (O’Reilly), this ebook covers the complete C# four. zero language -- with no skimping at the information -- together with:
<UL> * positive factors new to C# four. zero, akin to dynamic binding, non-compulsory and named parameters, and sort parameter variance
* All of C#'s basics
* complicated themes, together with operator overloading, customized conversions, sort constraints, covariance and contravariance, lambda expressions and closures, iterators, nullable varieties, and operator lifting
* LINQ, beginning with sequences, lazy execution, and conventional question operators; completing with a whole connection with question expressions
* hazardous code and guidelines, customized attributes, preprocessor directives, and XML documentation
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Extra info for C# 4.0 Pocket Reference
Left-associative operators Binary operators (except for assignment, lambda, and null coalescing operators) are left-associative; in other words, they are evaluated from left to right. For example, the expression 8/4/2 is evaluated as (8/4)/2 due to left associativity. Of course, you can insert your own parentheses to change evaluation order. 0 Pocket Reference Download from Library of Wow! com> Right-associative operators The assignment operators, lambda, null coalescing and conditional operator are right-associative; in other words, they are evaluated from right to left.
We can use a for loop statement to iterate through each element in the array. Write (c); // aeiou Arrays | 31 Download from Library of Wow! com> All array indexing is bounds-checked by the runtime. An Index OutOfRangeException is thrown if you use an invalid index: vowels = 'y'; // Runtime error The Length property of an array returns the number of elements in the array. Once an array has been created, its length cannot be changed. Collection namespace and subnamespaces provide higher-level data structures, such as dynamically sized arrays and dictionaries.
Whenever a new object is created, it is allocated on the heap, and a reference to that object is returned. During a program’s execution, the heap starts filling up as new objects are created. The runtime has a garbage collector that periodically deallocates objects from the heap, so your computer does not run out of memory. An object is eligible for deallocation as soon as nothing references it. Value-type instances (and object references) live wherever the variable was declared. If the instance was declared as a field within an object, or as an array element, that instance lives on the heap.