By S.L. Crouch, A. M. Starfield
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Additional info for Boundary Element Methods in Solid Mechanics: With Applications in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering
This practice was to avoid the payment of royalties, the faulted mineral being tax-free. Hence, the prediction of instability problems associated with abandoned mine workings cannot always be aided by old mine plans. The use of remote sensing imagery and aerial photography for the detection of surface features caused by subsidence to a large extent is restricted to rural areas and scale is a critical factor. Nonetheless, according to Russell et al. (1979) Landsat imagery, Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery and high-altitude aerial photography may provide data on fractures and lineaments that could be used to locate zones of potential subsidence.
The largest such storage facility in the United States is Iron Mountain, some 72 km north of Pittsburg. This is a huge former limestone mine, which was in operation from 1902 to 1950, supplying limestone to the steel industry of the area. It initially was used as an atomic shelter before being used to store government, commercial and industrial documents. The facility is dry because of the overlying shales, is located in a stable area and has a temperature of around 13ЊC. Research. Scientific research that requires protection from cosmic radiation and weather fluctuations may be suited to abandoned mine workings, where the temperature and humidity remain relatively constant.
5 at depths exceeding 100 m Allows zones of minimum stability in abandoned pillar and stall workings to be located. Locations and dimensions of pillars plotted on mine plan. Factor of safety for each pillar determined and plotted on plan. Their tributary areas are reassigned to adjacent pillars and the calculation repeated. They are removed for further iteration of the calculation, if so required. 11 Void migration above a coal seam exposed by opencast workings in Staffordshire, England. 12 A crown hole formed at the surface due to void migration from shallow workings in coal at Springs, South Africa.