Bacterial cell structure by Nader Hassanzadeh

By Nader Hassanzadeh

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The flagellum's motor is much like that of, say, an electric mixer, but the mixer's is driven by electrons instead of protons. 60 Mechanism of flagellar rotatory motor and locomotion        Flagellum is propeller in action. The energy used to drive the flagellar rotation comes from the proton motive force. As a proton enters the cell through the mot complex, its energy is coupled to movement. In order to achieve a single rotation, 1000 protons must be translocated. The speed of rotation is directly proportional to the proton motive force.

ATPase is the transmembranous protein enzyme which is utilizing protons from the outside to synthesize ATP on the inside of the membrane. 62 Some of the roles of proton motive force including flagellar rotation 63 ATP 64 Assembly of cellular structure Flagellar filament formation in Gramnegative bacteria   Proteins constituting the flagellum are not found in the cytoplasm, suggesting that they are exported as soon as they are synthesized. The proteins located beyond the cytoplasmic membrane are translocated through the type III flagellar export pathway.

A. B.  These proteins have important roles in: Cell growth-cell shape Chromosome segregation. FtsZ forms a ring-shaped structure(blue) during cell division that is required for the division process (a). When actin-like MreB homologues are present, cells can take on a rod shaped morphology like that seen in Escherichia coli (b). Caulobacter crescentus cells contain crescentin (yellow) in addition to FtsZ and MreB, and show a crescent-shaped cell morphology(c). e. g. in Spiroplasma cells).  Membrane-bound ribbon following the shortest helical line on the cellular coil, and composed of several well-ordered fibrils.

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