By Simon Tung, Bernard Kinker, Mathias Woydt
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Extra resources for Automotive Lubricant Testing and Advanced Additive Development (ASTM special technical publication 1501)
The report of the viscosity itself in order to rank different engine oil chemistries cannot be considered as sufficient, since the exponents applied to the different parameters for the estimation of film thicknesses are not identical WOYDT ON ENGINE OIL DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING 41 FIG. 2—Relative film thickness h* for a line contact over full range of temperatures. and is not only limited to viscosity. Three different equations ͓25͔ from the literature are referred to in order to calculate the oil film thicknesses.
12—Viscosity change with temperature offset with PR1 for Oils CLNNR, A31, A32, A33, A34. 26 AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT TESTING TABLE 5—Temperature sensitivity by sample. 44 temperature, which is more than the four ASTM D 5293-04 ͓5͔ currently requires as a minimum. There are several advantages of this approach. First, it minimizes the variance of the correlation as each measured value has a smaller contribution to the calibration constants. Second, it alerts the user to an error in a measured value by its larger deviation.
The PAG46-4 and PPG32-2 prototype formulations meet the ACEA-C1 SAP criteria. All prototype formulations respond to the symbol “N” criteria and most to a Zn-free philosophy. Ester-based formulations can fail with respect to the biodegradation of Ͼ60 % ͑see Table 1͒. Most recent ester-based formulations have a “40” viscosity ͓mm2 / s͔ at 40° C associated with a NOACK evaporation loss below 7 %. 9 mPas? Results Film Forming Behavior In order to differentiate hydrodynamic film forming behavior of alternative oils ͑hydrocarbons, esters, and polyglycols͒, the dynamic viscosity taking into account the differences in density and the pressureviscosity coefficients have to be used.