By Terry Hooker, Ron Poulter
Through the years 1810-14 males of remarkable skill seemed within the entrance ranks of the Republican reason: Simon Bolivar, the best of all South American squaddies, and José de San Martin. Bolivar had travelled commonly in Europe through the heady days of the Napoleonic Wars, being current at Napoleon's coronation. San Martin, enrolled within the Seminario de Nobles in Madrid, served within the Spanish military for twenty years, seeing motion within the battles of Baylen and Albuera and on the moment siege of Badajoz. those males might in attaining the destruction of the southern Spanish American empire.
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8 percentage of the sum of ships disabled. These were listed by Lloyd's as 14 Kuwaiti, 13 Saudi, four Bahraini, two each from Sharjah (sie) and Qatar and one from the UAE (sie). • Tanker trafflc was not affected by Iraqi and Iranian attacks for a number of causes. Overproduction in oilexporting states, induced by a worldwide demand, combined with an overcapacity of the tanker fleet, encouraged shipping companies desperate for business, to dispatch their vessels to the war zone. Other reasons fall beyond the scope of this book, but will be briefly cited.
194); and O'Rourke counted a larger number of ships, bringing the total to 111, 66 ofwhich were attacked by Iraq and 45 by Iran (1989, p. 43). Of the ships hit, three sank while 19 were broken up and sold and one halfwas cannibalized (Uoyd's, see pp. 43-4). The last quarter of 1987 was the most turbulent so far, and the year's figures were more than double the previous one, with Iranian and Iraqi totals alm ost neck to neck. The highest numbers were in December, when Iran hit 17 targets and Iraq 14; followed by September, with Iraq and Iran scoring 12 hits each; in October, Iraq hit 11 and Iran 10, while both hit 10 targets each, in, November.
4, as neither their flag nor their type was indicated. At this stage, the most important step was made possible. 11 was subdivided into ten half-yearly charts, each categorizing Iraqi, Iranian and unknown attacks per month, except for the last one, which covered two only. Some of the figures differed from a table of attacks on ships, published by O'Rourke in Proceedings/Naval Review 1989. 11 Iraqi and Iranian Hits Per Month 1984-8 Iraqi attacks Iranian attacks Unknown attacks 84 85 86 87 88 84 85 86 87 88 84 85 86 87 88 1 4 4 8 6 - 2 2 7 8 - 1 F 4 3 6 5 5 - 4 2 3 6 M 7 8 4 3 6 1 3 8 3 13 1 A 3 1 7 4 1 2 2 5 M 6 1 5 3 9 4 2 3 8 5 1 1 4 3 2 3 1 1 4 5 3 J 4 4 J 10 2 3 3 4 2 4 1 8 4 1 2 8 4 1 1 A 5 1 5 12 1 1 3 12 S 7 1 4 11 1 0 2 2 4 10 N 3 9 10 1 2 10 4 1 4 14 D 1 6 2 - 17 J The Tanker War: An Empirical Survey 37 Iraqi assaults for the months of February, March and April, and the Iranians' for March, May and June corresponded in both tables.