Argument Evaluation and Evidence by Douglas Walton

By Douglas Walton

​This monograph poses a chain of key difficulties of evidential reasoning and argumentation. It then bargains options accomplished by way of making use of lately constructed computational types of argumentation made on hand in man made intelligence. every one challenge is posed in this sort of means that the answer is definitely understood. The e-book progresses from confronting those difficulties and supplying strategies to them, construction an invaluable common procedure for comparing arguments alongside the way in which. It presents a hands-on survey explaining to the reader how you can use present argumentation equipment and ideas which are more and more being applied in additional detailed methods for the applying of software program instruments in computational argumentation structures. It indicates how using those instruments and strategies calls for a brand new method of the strategies of data and rationalization appropriate for various settings, resembling problems with public safeguard and future health, debate, felony argumentation, forensic facts, technology schooling, and using professional opinion proof in own and public deliberations.

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Circles represent evidentiary facts. For example the circle labeled 8 represents the proposition that the defendant had a revengeful murderous motive. The dot in the circle represents the belief that the proposition represented by the circle actually obtains. Arrows represent inferences. For example, the arrow from circle 8 to Z represents the inference from the motive to the conclusion Z. Wigmore also represented explanations on his charts, but he saw explanations as counterarguments that attack, undermine or “explain away” a given argument.

Todd, and ABC Research Group. 1999. Simple heuristics that make us smart. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harman, G. 1965. The inference to the best explanation. Philosophical Review 74: 88–95. B. Hintikka. 1982. Sherlock Holmes confronts modern logic: Towards a theory of information seeking through questioning. In Argumentation: Approaches to theory formation, ed. M. L. Martens, 55–76. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Hoffman, M. 2011. Cognitive effects of argument visualization tools. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation, 1–12.

4 Script-based model of the first student explanation facts in such a manner that it explains why some of the birds died while others survived. From the point of view of science education, where the goal is to find a good explanation that could be used to teach students how scientific method works, this explanation has some good qualities. But we also need to see some of its limitations. 7 Combining Argument and Evidence with Explanation The explanation of the survival of the Galapagos finches presented above was judged to be coherent, and consistent with the scientific data, but a failure of the explanation was judged to be that the students did not make clear which parts of it were based on the scientific evidence and which parts represented inferences that they had drawn themselves.

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