By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner
Faculties of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of third-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via a number of disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to a few of the tools, frequently optical and acoustic, used to gather three-d facts over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical tools used to quantify development, staff kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the crew. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the features of aggregative habit from the perspective of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to clarify how workforce dynamics on the person point creates emergent development on the point of the gang.
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Additional info for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
Application of these procedures can be found in such diverse fields as seismology (Menke 1984) and medical imaging (Herman 1979; Kak & Slaney 1987). A journal is now dedicated solely to this class of mathematical analyses (Inverse Problems). 1 Transmission techniques Let us slice a three-dimensional structure into parallel two-dimensional sections (Fig. 1). If the complete structure of each of these parallel sections can be obtained, the entire three-dimensional object can be reconstructed. Transmission techniques achieve this goal by passing natural or artificially created radiation through an object (Fig.
Self-calibration is a more sophisticated method of camera calibration (Shih 1989). Like on-the-job calibration, self-calibration requires a large number of well-defined targets on or surrounding the object. However, the targets do not need to be coordinated. Self-calibration techniques are used in very high-accuracy industrial applications of convergent close-range photogrammetry and are of limited general application. When using semimetric and nonmetric cameras, calibration range or on-the-job calibration techniques are normally the most appropriate solution in close-range biological applications.
Analytical data reduction of film images is accomplished by the use of comparators or analytical stereoplotters (see Petrie 1990 for a general review). Comparators are used to measure the image coordinates of targets; they do not necessarily perform any further processing of the measured coordinates. 4. Schematic illustration of a stereocomparator (adapted from Petrie 1990). one image whereas stereocomparators (Fig. 4) allow corresponding images to be measured while the observer views a stereomodel.