An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE, VoLTE and 4G by Christopher Cox

By Christopher Cox

Following on from the profitable first variation (March 2012), this e-book supplies a transparent rationalization of what LTE does and the way it really works. The content material is expressed at a structures point, supplying readers the chance to understand the major components that make LTE the new subject among proprietors and operators around the globe. The publication assumes not more than a uncomplicated wisdom of cellular telecommunication platforms, and the reader isn't anticipated to have any earlier wisdom of the complicated mathematical operations that underpin LTE.

This moment version introduces new fabric for the present kingdom of the undefined, resembling the hot gains of LTE in Releases eleven and 12, particularly coordinated multipoint transmission and proximity prone; the most brief- and long term suggestions for LTE voice calls, specifically circuit switched fallback and the IP multimedia subsystem; and the evolution and present kingdom of the LTE industry. It additionally extends many of the fabric from the 1st version, similar to inter-operation with different applied sciences comparable to GSM, UMTS, instant neighborhood zone networks and cdma2000; extra beneficial properties of LTE complex, significantly heterogeneous networks and site visitors offloading; information delivery within the developed packet middle; assurance and ability estimation for LTE; and a extra rigorous remedy of modulation, demodulation and OFDMA. the writer breaks down the method into logical blocks, via at the beginning introducing the structure of LTE, explaining the
techniques used for radio transmission and reception and the final operation of the approach, and concluding with extra really good issues similar to LTE voice calls and the later releases of the requirements. This methodical method permits readers to maneuver directly to take on the requisites and the extra complex texts with confidence.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE, VoLTE and 4G Mobile Communications

Sample text

LTE was required to deliver a peak data rate of 100 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink. This requirement was exceeded in the eventual system, which delivers peak data rates of 300 Mbps and 75 Mbps respectively. 7 Mbps in the uplink. ) It cannot be stressed too strongly, however, that these peak data rates can only be reached in idealized conditions, and are wholly unachievable in any realistic scenario. A better measure is the spectral efficiency, which expresses the typical capacity of one cell per unit bandwidth.

It was natural for network operators to bring the two concepts together, by allowing users to download data onto mobile devices. 5G systems built on the Introduction 7 original ideas from 2G, by introducing the core network’s packet switched domain and by modifying the air interface so that it could handle data as well as voice. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) incorporated these techniques into GSM, while IS-95 was developed into a system known as IS-95B. At the same time, the data rates available over the internet were progressively increasing.

Around that carrier frequency, it occupies a certain amount of frequency spectrum, known as the bandwidth. For example, a mobile might transmit with a carrier frequency of 1960 MHz and a bandwidth of 10 MHz, in which case its transmissions would occupy a frequency range from 1955 to 1965 MHz. The air interface has to segregate the base stations’ transmissions from those of the mobiles, to ensure that they do not interfere. UMTS can do this in two ways. When using frequency division duplex (FDD), the base stations transmit on one carrier frequency and the mobiles on another.

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