An Historical Geography of Peiping by Renzhi Hou

By Renzhi Hou

This booklet is ready the town of Peiping in China, often referred to as Beijing and Peking, and a urban of significant old value. Divided into 3 components, this paintings explores Peiping first as a frontier urban at a time whilst the nice Wall was once demonstrated, from the Chou dynasty (ca.1122—220 B.C.) until eventually the T’ang Dynasties as much as the Khitan career (A.D. 590—937). the second one half explores Peiping because it turns into a countrywide centre, throughout the Liao Dynasty and the Chin Dynasty, till 1234, and the 3rd half explores the way it turned the capital of the chinese language empire, till 1911. This paintings is a old geography and the advent information topographical positive aspects and geographical family members of the town, describing the best way the mountains upward thrust from the obvious developing concave palms to surround Peiping, resulting in the identify, the ‘Bay of Peiping’. We study that the mountains often succeed in over 3000ft and feature essentially no foot-hills, while the bay itself is full of sediments of gravel, sand, loam and loess that have been deposited in horizontal strata, to an excellent intensity. a number of illustrations and figures are integrated, and readers will see how town sits among rivers, the Hun (浑河 or Muddy River) and the Pai (白河 or White River). those chapters demonstrate how each one river has made its contribution to the cloth improvement of the town and its environs, together with via irrigation and because the Hun River shifted its path. because of the geography of the sector, just about all roads major from the northern lands of Mongolia and Manchuria to the nice undeniable of North China within the south are guaranteed to converge at Peiping. The historic outcomes of this, in addition to neighborhood weather stipulations and different elements of geography are explored during this booklet, which strains the historic upward push to eminence of Peiping.

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M. Roxby once wrote, ‘marked one of the greatest social divides in the world. It separated, ‘the steppe and the sown’, the Chinese Proper of myriad peasant families and the Outer China of widely-scattered but predatory pastoral groups which only the strongest of Chinese dynasties succeeded in bringing under control within the empire’ [9, p. 4]. However, not all parts of the frontier are of equal importance. The most critical part of it happens to be the section north and northeast of Peiping where the Yen Shan barrier lies.

M. Roxby once wrote, ‘marked one of the greatest social divides in the world. It separated, ‘the steppe and the sown’, the Chinese Proper of myriad peasant families and the Outer China of widely-scattered but predatory pastoral groups which only the strongest of Chinese dynasties succeeded in bringing under control within the empire’ [9, p. 4]. However, not all parts of the frontier are of equal importance. The most critical part of it happens to be the section north and northeast of Peiping where the Yen Shan barrier lies.

It is assumed that from the very beginning, the city Chi had been the capital of the state of Yen. C. In commenting on certain current events, he made the following remark: 10 According to Li Chi (《礼记》, The Book of Rites), the city Chi was also a feudal state founded at the same time of Yen (See the section of Yo Chi,《乐记》, Record of Music, 26). Afterwards, as recorded in Shih Chi Cheng-I (《史记正义》, A Commentary on Shih Chi), Chi was conquered by Yen, and the city Chi thus became the capital of the state of Yen.

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