American Practical Navigator by N. Bowditch

By N. Bowditch

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Lambert Conformal Projection Figure 312a. A simple conic projection. The useful latitude range of the simple conic projection can be increased by using a secant cone intersecting the earth at two standard parallels. See Figure 313. The area between the two standard parallels is compressed, and that beyond is expanded. Such a projection is called either a secant conic or conic projection with two standard parallels. Figure 312b. A simple conic map of the Northern Hemisphere. NAUTICAL CHARTS 29 The polyconic projection is widely used in atlases, particularly for areas of large range in latitude and reasonably large range in longitude, such as continents.

On such a chart the border scale near the latitude in question should be used for measuring distances. Of the various methods of indicating scale, the graphical method is normally available in some form on the chart. In addition, the scale is customarily stated on charts on which the scale does not change appreciably over the chart. The ways of expressing the scale of a chart are readily interchangeable. 39 inches. If the natural scale of a chart is 1:80,000, one inch of the chart represents 80,000 inches of the earth, or a little more than a mile.

An equatorial orthographic projection. 31 lines and the parallels as equally spaced concentric circles. If the plane is tangent at some point other than a pole, the concentric circles represent distances from the point of tangency. In this case, meridians and parallels appear as curves. The projection can be used to portray the entire earth, the point 180° from the point of tangency appearing as the largest of the concentric circles. The projection is not conformal, equal area, or perspective. Near the point of tangency distortion is small, increasing with distance until shapes near the opposite side of the earth are unrecognizable (Figure 319).

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