Advances in Porous Media, Vol. 3 by M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

This ebook is the 3rd quantity of a chain: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our goal is to provide in-depth overview papers that supply entire insurance to the sector of shipping in porous media. This sequence treats shipping phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. therefore, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of ideas and functions in a single sector to others, slicing throughout conventional obstacles. the target of every bankruptcy is to check the paintings performed on a selected subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental stories. The members of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from various backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are aimed toward all scientists and engineers in numerous diverse fields interested in the basics and purposes of methods in porous media.

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1988; McCarty, 1988). Speitel and DiGiano (1987) modeled the regeneration of activated carbon by biofilms and determined that the substrate flux into the biomass from the sorbed phase was greater than the substrate flux from the hquid phase. This suggests that contaminants adsorbed on particles before significant biomass growth occurs can be substantially biodegraded by biomass growing on the particles at later times. Lee et al. (1988) reported studies in which adsorption increased or decreased biodegradation and postulated that sorption may increase biodegradation under ohgotrophic (nutrient poor) conditions by concentrating nutrients, but may decrease biodegradation under nutrient-rich conditions by competing with microorganisms for substrate.

When water carrying nutrients for in-situ bioremediation is pumped through the aquifer, the water will tend to flow through the large pores and may not mix with the trapped solute. Models that assume complete mixing of substrates and nutrients without taking diffusion effects into account could substantially overpredict biodegradation. Although intra-particle diffusion has not been exphcitly incorporated into any transport models reviewed for this report, it may be possible to model it as dispersion (Valocchi, 1985).

Biodegradation reactions can change the pH of aquifers if the amount of oxidized material is large enough (Bouwer and McCarty, 1984). , 1988; Focht, 1988). The pH can be controlled in laboratory experiments so that biodegradation modeling is relatively unaffected by pH. As a consequence, most models of biodegradation do not exphcitly consider pH. In field systems, the pH should be determined before modeling begins. If biodegradation reactions are expected to significantly alter pH, then pH shifts should be included in the model, especially if electron acceptors other than oxygen are involved.

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