A geologic time scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

Half I. advent: 1. creation F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. thoughts and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. good isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic sessions: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condominium and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; common index

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Org). , 1990, p. 2. 21 setting out the stratigraphic principles, terminology, and classificatory procedures were prepared by the International Commission on Stratigraphic Terminology, created in 1952 by the 19th IGC in Algiers, and now the International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC) under the International Commission of Stratigraphy (ICS) of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The International Stratigraphic Guide was published in 1976 (Hedberg, 1976), and is now in its second edition (Salvador, 1994; Murphy and Salvador, 1999).

5 Rupelian 37 M. 8 Lattorfian Rupelian Rupelian 34 43 L. 6 Serravallian Burdigalian Miocene 20 GTS89 Berggren et Harland et al. (1995a) al. 5 16 DNAG83 EX88 Berggren et Haq et al. al. 6 Gelas. 4 Piacenz. 7(b) Comparison at the stage level of selected Cenozoic time scales with GTS2004. 70 Introduction Cenozoic time scale. The large number of geomagnetic field reversals since Late Santonian time, coupled with a wealth of seafloor magnetic profiles, and detailed knowledge of the radiometric age of selected magnetic polarity reversals in lavas and sediments provide a finely spaced scale.

Having created a high-temperature radiometric age data set, the chronogram method was applied that minimizes the misfit of stratigraphically inconsistent radiometric age dates around trial boundary ages to arrive at an estimated age of stage boundaries. From the error functions a set of age/stage plots was created (Appendix 4 in GTS89) that depict the best age estimate for Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic stage boundaries. ” For convenience, chrons were equated with biostratigraphic zones. The chron concept in GTS89 implied equal duration of zones in prominent biozonal schemes, such as a conodont scheme for the Devonian.

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