A Companion to Cognitive Science by George Graham, William Bechtel

By George Graham, William Bechtel

Unequalled within the caliber of its world-renowned members, this multidisciplinary spouse serves as either a direction textual content and a reference e-book around the large spectrum of problems with trouble to cognitive technological know-how.

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S (1990) study of female street-working prostitutes and male rent boys in Glasgow in relation to risks of HIV infection and the practice of safer sex. The study simply aimed to fill gaps in knowledge about risk-taking practices. Indeed, there are many studies with a social policy orientation which content themselves, and rightly so, with providing information directly related to policy implications and intervention strategies (for example, the extent of needle sharing among intravenous drug users).

In this sense, his work can be understood as testing out the usefulness of a theoretical concept. But in another sense, Goffmanâ s study can be viewed as a theory-constructing enterprise. His observations of some of the behaviour of inmates, such as fantasising, hunger strikes, dirty protests and so on, led him to develop ideas about how people typically deal with the pressures of living within a total institution. Goffman presents an analysis of different types of â adaptation strategiesâ used by the patients to cope with stress and the 36 Methods, Sex and Madness Methods, Sex and Madness 37 ways of â playing the systemâ which were adopted in order to sustain a sense of their own identities.

This, of course, brings us straight into the terrain of politics. Socialists and right-wingers, feminists and patriarchs, gay rights activitists and moral conservatives, for instance, will make rather different judgements as to what is in the interests of the wider community. The specific circumstances of a research project and the moral and political values of the researcher will inevitably have a powerful effect on the ethical stance which is taken. This does not mean that general guidelines and principles are useless or pointless, however.

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