By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of old Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible by way of Proverbs, activity, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha by means of Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, is additionally well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the useless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content basically due to its particular and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra largely on hand, this quantity deals a severe version, translation, and statement at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major topics, and position in moment Temple Judaism. ultimately, as a way to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s courting to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions can be explored.
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Additional resources for 4QInstruction
76 The kind of wisdom represented by 4QInstruction can be contrasted with that of Ben Sira. His instruction can be understood as exemplifying a type of early Jewish sapiential literature characterized by a rich combination of the sapiential and covenantal traditions. Ben Sira not only appropriates much of the instruction in Proverbs but also utilizes material from the Torah, famously portraying the personified wisdom of Prov 8 as a tree that takes root in Israel, the fruit of which is the Torah (Sir 24:23).
Commentary Little of 4Q415 2 ii survives except for a portion of the right side of the column. The fragment is nevertheless highly significant. 2 The female in question is probably the wife of the mebin or perhaps his daughter. She is given instruction on marriage. ” The word for “honor” ( )כבדיis understood as a feminine singular imperative on the basis of the feminine forms elsewhere in the column (ll. 3 The emphasis on marriage in 4Q415 2 ii is also compatible with a female addressee. 4Q416 2 iii 15–17 uses the root כבדwith regard to honoring one’s parents.
In the wisdom text 4QBeatitudes the term occurs in an exhortation that urges a student to listen to a teacher: “And now, understanding one, listen to me” (4Q525 14 ii 18; cf. 4Q303 1). The prominence of this term in 4QInstruction exemplifies its devotion to the education of students and helps establish it as a wisdom text. In terms of content there is much in 4QInstruction that resonates with the wisdom tradition. 4Q418 221 2–3 explains that the work is intended to make both the simple ( )פותייםand the intelligent ones ( )מביניםunderstand (cf.