By John Bryan Holds, MD
Emphasizing a realistic method of analysis and remedy, this quantity summarizes present details on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and hectic stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights contain wide dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative issues, and eyelid neoplasms. comprises up-to-date references and diverse new colour photos.
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Extra info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Surgical Anatomy of the Orbit. New York: Raven; 1985. CHAPTER 2 Evaluation of Orbital Disorders The evaluation of an orbital disorder should distinguish orbital from periorbital and intraocular lesions. A detailed history is essential in establishing a probable diagnosis and in guiding the initial workup and therapy; such a history should include . onset, course, and duration of symptoms (pain, diplopia, changes in vision) and signs (erythema, palpable mass, globe displacement) . prior disease (such as thyroid-associated orbitopathy [TAO] or sinus disease) and therapy injury (especially head or facial trauma) systemic disease (especially cancer) ..
It must be emphasized that infectious cellulitis-whether preseptal or orbital-is most commonly caused by underlying sinusitis if no obvious source of inoculation is noted. Preseptal cellulitis Infectious preseptal cellulitis is defined as inflammation and infection confined to the eyelids and periorbital structures anterior to the orbital septum. The orbital structures posterior to the septum are not infected but may be secondarily inflamed. Eyelid edema, erythema, and inflammation may be severe.
Because moving blood generates a signal void during MR imaging, larger venous abnormalities and structures can be visualized well on MR venography. Arteriography Arteriography should be used only in patients with a high probability of an arterial lesion such as an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. Retrograde catheterization of the cerebral vessels is accomplished through the femoral artery. There is a small risk of serious neurological and vascular complications because the technique requires installation of the catheter and injection of radiopaque dye into the arterial system.